12 Deadly United States Airplane Crashes Changed Aviation History Forever

12 Deadly United States Airplane Crashes Changed Aviation History Forever

The chance of a passenger dying in an airplane wreck is 1 in 11 million. A fatal accident only occurs once in every 2 million flights across all sizes of aircraft. Commercial planes can fly with only one engine and a skilled pilot can land them even if no engines are working. Even with all the safety measures, 12 deadly flights in the United States have greatly increased the safety of airplanes. Whenever a plane fails in the United States, the National Transportation Safety Administration makes a detailed determination of the cause, and that information is used to make airplanes even safer.

Mechanical Failure

Air Canada 797 was flying at 33,000 feet on June 2, 1983, when smoke was reported coming from the plane’s lavatory. While the pilot managed to land the plane safely in Cincinnati, Ohio, when the emergency doors were opened, a flash fire occurred killing 23 people. Planes must now have smoke detectors and automatic fire-retardant systems. Additionally, more flame-resistant materials are used in the interior of planes and they now have emergency lighting.

On September 8, 1994, USAir Flight 427 crashed as it approached its landing at Palm Beach International Airport. It took five years for the National Transportation Safety Administration to determine that a faulty rudder was to blame; Boeing ultimately replaced the rudders on all of this style of plane. Furthermore, Congress passed a law so that the National Transportation Safety Administration could help victim’s families.

It took the deadly crash of ValuJet Flight 592 on May 11, 1986, before Congress passed laws that smoke detectors were required in the cargo area of all passenger airplanes. Unfortunately, the crash killed 110 people.

On July 17, 1996, TWA Flight 800 literally blew up shortly after takeoff from John F. Kennedy Airport. While there were 230 people killed, the government finally concluded that it was a spark that started a fire in the center fuel tank. All planes have since been rewired and natural gas is now put in fuel tanks to reduce the likelihood of fires.

Fire-resistant insulation was retrofitted into about 700 McDonnell Douglas Jets after the crash of Swissair Flight 111 on September 2, 1998. The new insulation was designed so that planes would burn slower giving pilots more reaction time.

Human Failure

On June 30, 1956, TWA Flight 2 and United Airlines Flight 718 ran together above the Grand Canyon killing all 128 passengers aboard both flights, but the result was the creation of the Federal Aviation Agency two years later.

Just three days after Christmas in 1978, a captain flying United Flight 173 refused to listen to his crew who tried to warn him that they were running out of fuel. While the plane crashed killing 10, it changed policies inside the cockpit so that all crew members have equal power.

On August 31, 1986, a small aircraft ran into Aeromexico DC-9 above the Los Angeles airport killing 82 people, but the result was that all small aircraft flying above major airports must have a transponder.

On July 19, 1989, United Flight 232 the back engine fell off the plane severing the hydraulic line. The plane crashed killing 111 aboard. The result, however, was that a crack in the fan caused the wreck and it should have been detected by mechanics on the ground. The way that engine inspections before takeoff were changed along with increased redundant safety equipment installed on planes.


On August 2, 1985, Delta Flight 191 was on its final approach to Dallas-Fort Worth Airport when it was caught in wind turbulence causing the plane to crash killing 134 people aboard and more on the ground. After an extensive investigation, wind shear warnings were installed in all airplanes along with colored radar that was easier for pilots to see.

On June 1, 2009, Air France 447 crashed into the Atlantic Ocean during a severe thunderstorm. Investigators later determined that frozen pitot tubes were causing the pilot to receive false information. Pilots were retrained to fly the airplane regardless of what the instrument panels were telling them.

No one knows what brought down Malaysia Flight 370 on March 8, 2014. In fact, no one is sure where the plane crashed because no mayday was ever heard from the plane. Despite the fact that millions have been spent trying to find the wreckage, major parts of it still remain missing. As a result of the crash, all airplanes must now have tracking equipment installed on them.

Flying in an airplane is extremely safe. While there has not been a major airplane crash since 2014, investigators stand ready to investigate another one if it should occur. Then, they will make recommendations to make flying even safer.

Six Important Tips When Traveling with Diabetes

Six Important Tips When Traveling with Diabetes

When you are traveling, the last thing that you want to think about is your health. For many of a vacation is, well, a vacation from everything. We eat what we want, and we do what want to do. As a diabetic, however, there are certain things that you should keep in mind.

For most people, traveling itself does not pose a health risk. The problem most arises from a lapse in judgment. If you are receiving dialysis make sure you are not skipping a treatment.

To keep yourself in good shape, following these tips will help plan an exciting and healthy trip.

  1. Research Your Destination – It is important to know what medical offices are available. Call your insurance company to ask if you can use and where. You may want to get travel insurance. Also, if you are in a foreign country, learn the language to be able tell someone you are diabetic.
  2. Bring Devices in Carry-on Luggage – If you are carrying testing strips, pumps, shots or other medical equipment, pack them in a small bag or in you carry-on luggage. This will ensure that they are not lost, and they will be available if needed during the flight. In addition, make sure you have enough supplies for the entire trip. Don’t assume you will be able to find them.
  3. Know Your Eating Schedule – Your schedule will fluctuate and most likely you will not be eating on a normal schedule. Have snacks handy to keep your insulin level steady, and try to plan to eat at a normal time if possible. When you are on a flight, ask the airline for healthier options ahead of time.
  4. Watch What You Eat – Desserts, soft drinks and alcohol are readily available at most vacation spots, especially if you are on cruise or Disney vacation. In the moment, it is easy to indulge, and that might be ok, sparingly. Remember it is not just the obvious foods to wary of; overeating should be a concern. It’s a vacation, but still, you need to watch your calorie and carbohydrate count.
  5. Understand Your Insulin Needs – When flying the air pressure in the cabin in the plane will affect your insulin dosage, especially when taking off or landing. It is best not to use your pump during these times as too much may be delivered. For those traveling cross country, the quick journey across time zones may also cause problems. You should adjust for this aspect. Ask your doctor for the best plan.
  6. Carry Hand Sanitizer – While this may seem simple, it is one of those things that most people forget. At a theme park, the beach or in a hotel, you will encounter germs. Your hands will be dirty. If you need to test your glucose levels, hand sanitizer will quickly clean dirty hands before you prick your finger.
    While this list is not all inclusive, these tips will help you have a better trip and keep your diabetes in check.

10 Ways to Make Your Flight More Comfortable

10 Ways to Make Your Flight More Comfortable

We have all been there. The flight is cramped, noisy, and hot. What makes it worse is that the snacks and food are bland. Then, you notice the people in the first-class cabin looking comfortable. You could be envious, but then there are ways that you can be as content, even in coach. If you follow these steps, you can feel first class in the main cabin.

  1. Pick a Good Seat – You may like a certain seat, but it may not be the best option. If you are looking for more room, the aisle seat may be best. Yes, the exit row is roomier, but it doesn’t have storage space for your person item. For those who love to nap, the window seat would good for you.
  2. Sit Over the Wings – Turbulence can be annoying to some and scary to others. Sitting in the middle of the plane over the wings offers the smoothest ride.
  3. Dress Comfortably – While you may want to dress for the business meeting before the flight, it is better to wear comfortable clothes that can be layered. This way you will be prepared for temperature variances, and you won’t be uncomfortable in stiff or tight clothes.
  4. Buy Disinfectant Wipes – Flight attendants do their best to clean between flights, but they don’t have time to wipe everything down. Since the person in the seat before could have sneezed or coughed over the area, bring some wipes to clean the tray, seat, belts and arm rest.
  5. Bring Water – The pressurized cabin will dehydrate you. Drink water before the flight, but bring a bottle of water on the flight with you. This way you can avoid a dry mouth or headache due to being dehydrated.
  6. Take Noise Canceling Headphones – The plane can be loud. Noise cancelling ear phones will drown out the side noise, allowing you to focus on your movie or music. You can even pretend to be listening and just have peace and quiet.
  7. Pack Your Own Blanket and Pillow – The ones provided are not as sanitary as you may want. Plus, with some airlines charging for them, you can save some money.
  8. Buy Your Own Snacks – Buy a healthy snack or even a delicious meal before you flight. This way you know that you will have something you like to eat during the flight.
  9. Have Your Own Entertainment – Some airlines are removing seat-back screens to allow passengers to bring their own devices. Companies like Delta offer apps with free movies and TV shows you can watch during the flight. If your flight doesn’t offer this, bring your own movie on your tablet or phone to watch.
  10. Stay Close to the Airport the Night Before – Avoid the hectic rush. Stay the night at a hotel close by the airport. You might find it to be a less chaotic morning, and you may be able to sleep later and get more rest.

Tips and Regulations You Should Know Before Flying

Tips and Regulations You Should Know Before Flying

While most of know you need to carry travel size liquids in a clear quart-sized bags, there are other things that we don’t think about. Neglecting to prepare for regulations and procedures will cause you a lot of headaches. If you are traveling there are certain things you should consider before flying.

Know if your carry-on is too big. The airline will check, especially on a full flight. Gate agent may measure your bags, but seasoned agents can spot a large bag by eye. Keep in mind that even if it is the right size, you still may be asked to check it on a budget airline or a flight that is at capacity. The general rule is that your carry-on should be under 22 inches high, 14 inches wide and 9 inches deep. You also allowed a personal item such as a purse, laptop/tablet bag, or stroller.

Items to Avoid Packing

Be sure not to pack items that are prohibited for your carry-on items.

  • Liquids – You can bring 3 oz. or less of various liquids that fit inside one quartz-sized clear bag. Water, drinks or perfumes bought in the secure zone of the airport are allowed on the plane. All other liquids should be placed in your checked baggage.
  • Weapons
  • Ammunition and Fire Arms
  • Axes
  • Sharp Objects
  • Tools
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 7 Smart Phone
  • Pepper Spray or Mace
  • Razor Blades – Packaged ones are OK in checked baggage, and blades on a razor are Ok if sheathed. Straight razors are not allowed.
  • Knives
  • Spray Cans
  • Fuel
  • Some Alcoholic Beverages

If you have any questions, please check with your airline or the TSA to make sure you can carry an item on board the plane.

Check Documents Too

Before your trip, be sure to make sure you have all your documentation in order when traveling to another country. Use the following checklist to help you.

  • Make sure your passport is still current. You need to have at least six months left to travel.
  • Check to see if the country accepts your driver’s license if you are going to rent a car. You may need an international driver’s license.
  • Some European countries require what is called a vignette, which is a road tax sticker. When reading a car make sure this is included, or you may get a ticket in the mail.
  • Bring the right credit cards. Some banks are giving you credit cards without raised numbers. Some car rentals places and store in Europe will not accept this type of card. Make sure you have at least one card with raised numbers.
  • A “no fee” or a free special issuance passport will not allow you to travel any but the country where your spouse is stationed at for the military.
  • Be sure to check with the health department. You may be required to receive certain vaccinations to travel to specific destinations.

Things to Consider when Traveling with Kids

If you have children and intend to fly by plane, you should make the necessary arrangements for your journey. You should first consider the age of your child, since most airlines do not host kids who are less than a week old. Children might develop health complications while traveling, especially during landing. They might develop ear pains that can easily be countered by letting them drink a beverage or chew some gum before landing.

Immunization and Vaccines

You should also make sure that your children are immunized or vaccinated, and this will depend on applicable rules at your destination country. Proper adherence to the required procedures and prescriptions in respect to vaccines, like yellow fever, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and meningococcal disease, should be followed. Some vaccinations are not suitable for children of certain age groups, and it is advisable to seek medical information.

Avoiding Hygienic Diseases

Another major problem for children is diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases. They are a result of touching or interacting with dirty objects. This condition makes children become dehydrated faster than normal healthy kids. It is, therefore, recommended that one should control the type of food that the children eat. Fruits should be thoroughly washed and peeled before eating.

It is also good to carry your food, so as to avoid the temptation of having to buy foods from outside vendors which might be infected. Foods such as fish and meat should be immediately eaten after preparation and one should also use purified water to cook or make ice. Make sure that your children’s teeth are thoroughly brushed, including disinfecting their toys and hands too. Oral rehydration is required in case of dehydration.

Other Health Hazards

Children are also vulnerable to parasites, because they are often in contact with the ground. Always make sure that they wear shoes to protect them against the parasites. They can also easily contract rabies, because of their exposure to animals like dogs.

In case they have been bitten, promptly treat the wound with clean water and soap and assess if the wound needs further medical attention. Sunburn is also common among children. Apply high protection sunscreen and avoid direct sun exposure. It is also good to use hats and sunglasses to reduce exposing your children direct to the sun.

Preventive Measures

When visiting a malaria prone area, take preventive measures by giving your children prescriptions that are most appropriate for them. Try as much as possible to avoid mosquito-infested areas.

You can also use sprays after noting all the safety requirements. It is also a good idea to have a first aid kit with you that consists of things like band-aids and disinfectant solutions, protective ointments, fever medication, high protection sunscreen and other necessary equipment.

Tips for A Business Travel Policy

Tips for A Business Travel Policy

When it comes to business traveling, there is a lot to be put into consideration, not as it is opposed to when you are traveling for vacation. In case you are traveling for business for the first time, it’s vital to note that cost does not play a crucial role as much as your time. In case it is your first time, or simply it’s been a while since you took a business travel, the following is a step by step guideline on the preparations you need to make.

Preparations which are essential prior to making the trip include gathering information on your company’s travel policies, booking, and packing.

What is a Company Travel Policy?

A great company travel policy is used for the protection of companies’ employees while traveling, to reduce the small business travel expenses, and to limit clients’ legal liabilities. It should be developed by starting with the booking of any trip and ending with paperwork the company’s employees file after their return.

To establish a travel policy, a set of rules are developed to guide the company’s travelers. These guidelines must be communicated regularly to these employees. The guidelines should show the preferred providers, per diem rates, the service class to choose, and other basic guidelines. Also, some specifics must be addressed wherever applicable. For example, companies don’t want their employees spending all day at an airport in which is not their final destination. In such cases, the company may want to specify a layover if it saves the company over $300 off the air flight. This is just an example. In reality, many small businesses won’t require an employee to spend several more hours in a city that’s on its way to Fargo to save just a few dollars.

Airlines & Negotiated Rates

Negotiating airline rates is becoming more difficult these days due to airlines consolidating, the narrowing of routes, and the limited discounts available that would protect the airlines already shaky bottom lines. Nevertheless, negotiating airline rates can still be done with thorough data.

When working on negotiating with airlines, the company’s manager must be able to demonstrate a significant level of travel volume to even get an airline to answer the phone for negotiations. The manager must also be able to shift and control that volume to the preferred airline. Once those foundations are established, he/she must be realistic in setting negotiations that are based on the company’s travel program. And if the manager is not experienced in these types of negotiations, he or she may need to consult experts to assist with this process.

There is a true saying that better preparation prevents poor performance, and this can be applied with the negotiation process as well. The following are certain steps companies should adhere to for more propensity of success with this negotiation process:

  • Gathering as much information as possible concerning the travelers’ patterns– this can be retrieved from corporate cards, a third party consolidator, the travel management company, or through online booking tools. From there, the manager can determine the airlines used most frequently, the airlines serving the needed route, and the pair of cities the company’s travelers go between the most. There shouldn’t be any overlooking of low cost carriers or foreign carriers that are less known. Also, the U.S Department of Transportation would have free information concerning the airline market share.
  • Determine the right point of contact at the airlines for negotiation– for big companies with large travel programs amounting to several million dollars each year, the airlines’ corporate sales directors may work with them. However, smaller programs may deal with sales managers or regional corporate account execs.
  • Search for the company’s program benefits to use as a selling point for airlines– different things can be used, such as the ability to shift a significant level of the company’s travel volume share to a single airline, and possessing a high volume on a route that is not a traditional busy route.
  • Determine which types of discounts would be requested from the airline– for less established programs, aiming for backend rebates would be helpful once a specific volume is established by the company, for instance. Another example could be obtaining direct discounts on special classifications of airfare.
  • Being persistent– different things can done to achieve the company’s goals. For example, tapping into inside and outside resources of the company to assist with negotiations, and talking with multiple airlines, the travel management company, and the company’s procurement department are other tools to use. And when talking with multiple airlines, it’s imperative to be careful of nondisclosure agreements within contracts.
  • Consulting the legal team before signing the contract– asking the company’s legal department or an expert attorney to review is imperative before signing any contract.
  • Managing the airline program to ensure smooth sailing of the next negotiation– this is done by communicating to the travelers about the policy and the preferred airlines, by considering to make it mandatory for travelers to travel booking to the discounted airlines, and by monitoring compliance.

Corporate Travel Services for Business Travelers by Ryanair

The corporate travel services for business travelers by Ryanair is known as business plus. The ticket price for this plan starts at $78.50 (69.99 €), and it includes free changes on the travel day. Business passengers will have premium seating, but it’s subject to availability. Fast track security will be accessible for these passengers at selected airports as well. Also, passengers are able to take a free 10 kg cabin bag along with a small carry-on and a free 20 kg check-in bag. Business passengers also don’t have to go through queues because a dedicated business plus desk will be provided at the airport. Passengers will, however, have to pay for food and drinks regardless if they board on first or last. Ryanair is offering this business class service to all its flights as it pursuing to gain a larger portion of the corporate travelling market of Europe.

Ryanair has been following their competitor, EasyJet. Both of them have been adding new destinations in order to win over more business passengers and to improve the frequency of flights. They both know that passengers these days want different things. It’s no long the lounge, free food, and free drinks. It’s not to spend all day at the airport, but to spend more time at the meetings, and to have more value for the money.

Having said this, Ryanair’s chief marketing office, Kenny Jacobs, assured that the business plus fair would always be more affordable than the flexible business fare from another carrier. And even though there would be no installation of different seats and no curtains, the business passengers would be located at the very front and back of the planes to ensure these passengers can easy and quickly get on and off the plane.

Know Before You Go – What’s your Company’s Travel Policy?

In case you work for a company that does not have a lot of employees, it is highly likely that your company has a travel policy. The policy is very vital in determining how much you can spend during your trip and where you can spend it. How stiff your company policy is, will vary, but the most common policies have preferred hotel chain, airline, and car rental partner. Of course, there are exceptions for traveling with clients, billable travel and special events.


Booking for travel differentiates from personal travel in the case that, when you are traveling for business, time is of the essence. Direct costs can be made for things such as hotels and airline. In cases where you are not working, there is also an opportunity of cost charged.


When it comes to what you pack for a business trip, the weather will not necessarily be a determinant. There is a great need to look into the kind of environment that you will be in, and the number of the business meetings that you will get to attend. The kind of associations you have and activities you partake, will determine the dress code that will be most appropriate, hence what you shall pack.
Of course, now during the trip, there are also factors that are highly relevant, so as to ensure your trip is successful. It is vital to think about flexibility, organization, and your corporate credit card.

Be Flexible

Mistakes, when it comes to business trips, are unfortunately inevitable. Therefore, one needs to roll with the punches and just be flexible. Common irregularities, such as flight delays and cancellations, will stop you, but an easy solution might be using an application, such as TripIt, that will alert you in case anything comes up.

Be Organized

When it comes to business trips, you have to keep your act together. You have to be conscious of your time and monitor your spending by keeping receipts. Many companies have adopted the use of Concur that monitors all expenses during a business trip.

Corporate credit cards

There are instances whereby companies issue their employees’ corporate credit cards, while in other cases you use your personal credit card. In case you are issued with a credit card, ensure that you are up to date with your company’s policy, so that you can monitor and keep track of charges.

Air Regulations while Traveling by planes

Air Regulations while Traveling by planes

Air travel is one of the most efficient modes of transport. This form of locomotion involves many regulations to ensure the safety of the passengers. It is important for all passengers to abide by the set rules since emergencies on air crafts can suddenly escalate into a crisis. A passenger in an airplane is allowed to have carry-on items not exceeding 12 kilograms. Examples of such commodities include a wheelchair, laptop, stroller or a purse.

Security Rules for Liquids, Lighters, Medication

Passengers on planes should abide by all the set rules. The airports feature security rules for liquids that can be carried onto the aircraft. A fluid is anything from water, syrup, creams, perfumes, shaving cream, toothpaste, gels, and any other product that can flow. Passengers are encouraged to put all the liquids in the luggage that is checked. The check is because the liquids that they take on board have set regulations to control them. The liquids that the passenger may require on board should be put in a single transparent bag while they are undergoing security checks. No liquid container should contain more than 100 ml of content, and they should all fit in only one plastic bag.

A lighter is a popular item among people who smoke. It is, therefore, a common commodity seen on a daily basis at airports. Passengers have permission to carry lighters on board although they are supposed to remain with them throughout the trip. Lighters should not be put in your hand luggage or the luggage that is checked either. A parent is allowed to carry baby food that they deem enough for their children throughout the trip. The parents may, however, have to taste the food items at the security checks to ascertain their legality. In case one is taking medication for a particular illness while going on a flight, they are allowed to carry them on board. One is however required to present documentation to prove that they need this drugs.

Be Well Versed with the Airport Regulations

It is important for the one traveling to ensure that they are well versed with the airport regulations to avoid situations that may be embarrassing from occurring at the security checks. One should carry only the items that they need. You should also ensure you have a transparent bag before you arrive for the safety audit. Travelers are advised not to waste time to wrap gifts for friends since they will be unwrapped at the checkpoints.

There are certain items that one cannot carry on airplanes. Sharp objects that can be used for cutting are considered as dangerous and therefore they are illegal to have on a plane. One can also not turn up for security checks carrying equipment such as baseball bats or clubs. Such equipment can endanger the lives of other passengers. Firearms are allowed for the legal holders of a license although they should only be in the checked luggage. Other forbidden objects include explosives and chemical contents.

Economy-Class Syndrome and Jet Lag from Air Travel

Economy-Class Syndrome and Jet Lag from Air Travel

After a flight, a passenger may experience certain effects on the body. Economy-Class Syndrome is a condition that comes up due to less blood circulation that may result in blood clots in the system. The leading causes of the disease are several hours of immobility and stiffness due to inability to stretch the legs. Low cabin pressure, dehydration and low humidity can also increase the risk of vein thrombosis.

Move Around the Cabin Frequently

Symptoms of Economy-Class Syndrome include swellings on the legs, cramps and also swollen knees. Some of the symptoms of thrombosis are not visible. Remaining seated with the legs crossed can worsen the effects of thrombosis. Activities that increase the risk of Economy-Class Syndrome include smoking of tobacco, exposure to excess heat, use of oral contraceptives, being overweight, and consumption of alcohol. Thrombosis is a serious condition which requires urgent action to prevent more complications. The condition has the potential to become pulmonary embolism if the clots travel to the pulmonary artery through the blood stream. The embolism can make one experience sharp chest pains and spitting blood. The worst case scenario can lead to death.

Economy-Class Syndrome can be reduced by ensuring that you move around the cabin frequently to enhance circulation of blood. It is advisable to remove the shoes in the plane to allow free toe movement. Flexing joints whenever you can and ensuring the feet remain flat on the floor while you are seated is a good habit to reduce Economy-Class Syndrome. The thighs can be exercised by sliding the feet forward and then backward severally. It is advisable that one dresses in loose clothes when taking flights to avoid swelling due to clots where the clothing is tight. Staying hydrated and avoiding alcohol can aid in reducing the effects. One can also take medication to prevent the condition. People with heart conditions may be given antecedents to manage the consequences of thrombosis. Upon arrival, it is advisable for one to take a slightly warm shower and rest to enhance quick recovery.

A Common Effect of Air Travel – Jet Lag

Jet lag is another common effect of air travel. It comes up as a result of the sudden change of time zones. The condition is common in people traveling to the east and is experienced by up to three individuals in a group of four. Effects of jet lag include mood shifts, tiredness, and occurrence of sleep disorders. A passenger is advised to try sleeping onboard with earphones plugged and using an eye mask to reduce the effects of jet lag. One should also avoid alcohol and caffeine. On arrival, one should adapt quickly to the time zone, relax and perform light exercises. One can also seek medical attention from a doctor to get help in overcoming the effects of the condition.